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Test pilots put tech in motion

飞机试飞员的故事

  
发布日期: 2010-07-05
Biplane pilot and flight engineer | 双翼飞机驾驶员和飞行工程师
双翼飞机驾驶员和飞行工程师 飞机试飞员的故事
科技不只是工具和电线杆和代码。这也是对人谁做到这一点,谁帮忙翻译成电气和机械的东西的可能性,工作 - 和工作的权利在现实世界 - 。在世界航空,人民谁得到的一些最重要的实际操作经验是一个刻苦耐劳,敢于品种作为试飞员称。到他们那边去野生蓝色,绑到飞机,往往还没有得到充分适航证明,并在这样做有助于推飞行科学的界限。 

在美国,最早举办的航空研究一些 - 也就是说,后由莱特兄弟和其他勇敢的个人跳开始 - 是根据国家航空咨询委员会的主持下进行。的NACA开始在弗吉尼亚州兰利领域的业务,在这里,在约1920年的照片,我们得到一个水产中心网的第一位平民试飞员,托马斯卡莱尔把前面的双翼飞机驾驶舱的方巾,可见一斑。他的身后,更突出的白衬衫,是工程师约翰小克劳利
Technology isn't just about wires and widgets and levers and code. It's also about the people who make it happen, who help translate electrical and mechanical possibilities into things that work--and work right--in the real world. In the world of aviation, the people who get some of the most critical hands-on experience are a hardy, daring breed known as test pilots. Into the wild blue yonder they go, strapped into aircraft that often have yet to be proven fully airworthy, and in so doing help push the boundaries of flight science.

In the United States, some of the earliest organized aeronautical research--that is, after the jump start by the Wright Brothers and other intrepid individuals--was done under the auspices of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. NACA began its operations at Langley Field in Virginia, and here, in a photo from about 1920, we get a glimpse of NACA's first civilian test pilot, Thomas Carroll, tucked into the front cockpit of a biplane. Behind him, more prominent in the white shirt, is engineer John Crowley Jr.
Thomas Carroll | 托马斯卡莱尔
托马斯卡莱尔 飞机试飞员的故事
这里有一个在卡罗尔更好看,在戏剧形象,从1923年3月。 

在动力飞行,那些最早的日子,这么多尚未被证明是对飞机的技术和处理,几乎所有的驾驶员是各种各样的试飞员。这些早期的飞行员往往是自学,或非正式地告诉对方。
Here's a better look at Carroll, in dramatic profile, from March 1923.

In those earliest days of powered flight, when so much had yet to be proven about aircraft technology and handling, almost any pilot was a test pilot of sorts. Those early fliers were often self-taught, or taught each other informally.
Paul King and Vought VE-7 | 保罗国王和沃特维生素E - 7
保罗国王和沃特维生素E - 7 飞机试飞员的故事
在1925年10月,国王的NACA试飞员保罗带来了沃特维生素E - 7“蓝鸟”双翼飞机,通常用作高级教练机的飞行前服用。他穿着一件毛皮皮革衬里飞行服,并戴上氧气面罩的。 

这是沃特维生素E - 7,三年前,于1922年10月17日,完成了第一次采取从兰利号航空母舰,是全国第一个航空母舰上起飞。显然,这是在飞行至少一天一试飞员,少校。弗吉尔长“南瓜”格里芬。 

这次活动是由另一后来回忆海军飞行员,飞机于沃特网站指出:“我们没有刹车,使飞机在甲板上举行了由一名在最后投弹线。这是连接到一个环在起落架。壁球'格里芬攀升,打开了伊斯帕诺絮扎引擎充分发挥其180马力,并给出了'走'的信号。炸弹释放被抢购和沃特甲板上滚下。几乎达到前甲板中心电梯是空降。“
In October 1925, NACA test pilot Paul King poses with a Vought VE-7 "Bluebird" biplane, typically used as an advanced trainer, before taking flight. He's dressed in a fur-lined leather flying suit and has donned his oxygen facepiece.

It was a Vought VE-7 that three years earlier, on October 17, 1922, performed the first-ever take-off from the USS Langley, the nation's first aircraft carrier. Clearly, that flight made a test pilot, at least for the day, of Lt. Cmdr. Virgil C. "Squash" Griffin.

The event was later recalled by another naval aviator, as noted on the Vought Aircraft Web site: "We had no brakes, so the plane was held down on the deck by a wire with a bomb release at the end. This was attached to a ring in the landing gear. 'Squash' Griffin climbed in, turned up the Hispano Suiza engine to its full 180 hp, and gave the 'go' signal. The bomb release was snapped and the Vought rolled down the deck. Almost before it reached the deck-center elevator it was airborne."
Wright Apache | 赖特阿帕奇
赖特阿帕奇 飞机试飞员的故事
穿着热烈,于1928年1无名的NACA试飞员得到准备从该集团的兰利航空实验室在纪念弗吉尼亚机场高空飞行。这架飞机是赖特的Apache,其中,美国航天局说,原本有一个金属外套覆盖曲轴箱和发动机汽缸的一部分。正是在这个时候,兰利研究人员与整流罩上使用的发动机前试验 - 在阿帕奇,空气冷却的J - 5旋风案 - 为了减少阻力,同时仍然允许引擎必须有足够的动力。
Dressed warmly, an unnamed NACA test pilot in 1928 gets ready for a high-altitude flight from the group's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory airfield in Virginia. The aircraft is a Wright Apache, which, NASA says, originally had a metal jacket covering the crankcase and part of the engine cylinders. It was at this time that Langley researchers were experimenting with the use of cowlings on the front of engines--in the case of the Apache, an air-cooled J-5 Whirlwind--in order to reduce drag, while still allowing the engine to be sufficiently powered.
W.H. McAvoy and North American O-47 | 白盔部队麦卡沃伊和北美Ø - 47
白盔部队麦卡沃伊和北美Ø - 47 飞机试飞员的故事
水产中心网的第二个研究实验室成立于莫菲特场1939年在加利福尼亚州森尼韦尔(现在它被称为美国航空航天局的艾姆斯研究中心。)在这里,在1940年11月,试飞员硏麦卡沃伊步出北美Ø - 47,第一次测试飞机在埃姆斯。由麦卡沃伊和同航班的飞行员劳伦斯Clousing研究纳入了飞机上的冰积累看问题。 

这些航班往往是做一两个引擎洛克希德12飞机。 “麦卡沃伊和Clousing ...飞到到最严重的天气一些小运输机,他们能够找到在西海岸,”根据美国太空总署的帐户。 “冰有时会形成厚厚的窗口,以便他们能不能看看翅膀无冰与否,将切出的无线电因结冰,冰有时会形成表面上的尾巴,这只是部分受一充气橡胶鞋。“
NACA's second research lab was established in 1939 at Moffett Field in Sunnyvale, Calif. (It's now known as NASA's Ames Research Center.) Here, in November 1940, test pilot W.H. McAvoy steps out of a North American O-47, the first test airplane at Ames. Research flights by McAvoy and fellow pilot Lawrence Clousing included looking into the problem of ice buildup on aircraft.

Those flights often were done in a two-engined Lockheed 12 airplane. "McAvoy and Clousing...flew the little transport plane into some of the worst weather they could find on the West Coast," according to a NASA account. "Ice would sometimes form on the windows so thickly that they could not see whether the wings were ice-free or not, the radio would cut out due to icing, and ice would sometimes form on the tail surfaces, which were only partially protected by an inflatable rubber shoe."