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The extreme history of X-Planes

X系列飞机简史

  
发布日期: 2010-07-01
X-Plane group shot (1953) | X - Plane的镜头组(1953)
X - Plane的镜头组(1953) X系列飞机简史
在航空世界的X飞机举行一个特别的地方。他们是未来,在什么在后世的飞机来看看 - 一瞥,并在一定程度上,以及航天器。在过去的70年,他们已经为包括三角翼,无尾飞机发展的试验场,和超音速飞行。 

凡一次实验所需的飞机在最近几年的稳定的手,一个在驾驶舱试飞员反应快,他们往往是无人驾驶的船只 - 在航天中心主题一般的进步。它的那些新的,无人驾驶的X已经在最近,与X -这是在4月发射进入轨道第37B第一头条新闻出现的飞机,然后在5月下旬,再次的极超音速X - 51A条。 

在此幻灯片,我们将回头看在X -飞机多年来,从1953年开始,这组镜头年份。在中心的X - 3,顺时针方向从左边的是一个X - 1A型,一个D - 558 - 1,1 XF型- 92A条,一个X - 5,一个D - 558 - 2和一个X - 4。 (几架飞机,如在D - 558系列以及后来的M2-F1/2/3系列,从来没有拿到“X”的称号,虽然他们在家庭包括在内,因为他们所服务的同一目标的飞行研究。 )
In the world of aviation, X-Planes hold a special place. They're a glimpse into the future, a look at what's coming in a later generation of aircraft--and, to a degree, spacecraft as well. Over the last seven decades, they've been a proving ground for developments including delta wings, tailless aircraft, and supersonic flight.

Where once the experimental aircraft required the steady hand and quick reflexes of a test pilot in the cockpit, in recent years, they've tended to be unmanned vessels--a central theme in aerospace advances generally. It's those newer, pilotless X-Planes that have been in the headlines of late, first with the X-37B that was launched into orbit in April, and then again in late May, with the hypersonic X-51A.

In this slideshow, we'll be taking a look back at X-Planes over the years, starting with this vintage group shot from 1953. In the center is the X-3, and clockwise from the left are an X-1A, a D-558-1, an XF-92A, an X-5, a D-558-2, and an X-4. (A few aircraft, such as the D-558 series and the later M2-F1/2/3 series, never got the "X" designation, though they're included in the family because they served the same goal of flight research.)
X-1 hits Mach 1 | X - 1的命中1马赫
X - 1的命中1马赫 X系列飞机简史
对X -飞机的历史始于与X - 1。这不只是在传承第一 - 这是有史以来第一架飞机突破音障。 

那个著名的航班已于1947年10月14日举行,与传说中的查克耶格尔的驾驶舱。这里的照片显示的是贝尔飞机飞行的X 1 - 1,以及纸张,磁带片段(其中跟踪飞行数据),以超音速的速度显示在1马赫跳跃。 (第一滑翔飞行曾在1946年1月发生的事情。) 

美国宇航局指出,排气羽流在这里显示了冲击波模式。该成果被列为最高机密,空军不愿证实,直到1948年3月超音速飞行。
The history of X-Planes begins with the X-1. It wasn't just the first in the lineage--it was the first aircraft ever to break the sound barrier.

That famous flight took place on October 14, 1947, with the legendary Chuck Yeager in the cockpit. The photo here shows the Bell Aircraft X-1-1 in flight, along with a snippet of the paper tape (which tracked the flight data) showing the jump to supersonic speed at Mach 1. (The first glide flight had happened in January 1946.)

NASA points out that the exhaust plume here shows the shock wave pattern. The achievement was classified as top secret; the Air Force would not confirm the supersonic flight until March 1948.
Test pilot John Griffith | 试飞员约翰格里菲思
试飞员约翰格里菲思 X系列飞机简史
试飞员约翰格里菲思戳他的头从一个X - 1进行交谈与地面机组人员。尽管飞机没有损坏,直到初始X - Plane的到来音障,显然有一些弹药 - 因此,根据美国航天局,在X - 1机身已基本上作为一个.50口径机枪相同的形状子弹,这是已知的以超音速的速度稳定。引擎盖下,在X - 1包装1的XLR - 11火箭发动机,由液态氧和水和乙醇混合燃料。
Test pilot John Griffith pokes his head out of an X-1 to chat with ground crew members. Although aircraft had not broken the sound barrier until the advent of the initial X-Plane, some munitions apparently had--hence, according to NASA, the fuselage of the X-1 had essentially the same shape as a .50-caliber machine gun bullet, which was known to be stable at supersonic speeds. Under the hood, the X-1 packed an XLR-11 rocket engine, fueled by liquid oxygen and a mixture of alcohol and water.
X-1 instrument panel | X - 1的仪表板
X - 1的仪表板 X系列飞机简史
X - 1的飞行员没有参与到风景优美的空中景观。相反,他们粘在驾驶舱仪表板,这表明,如空速,高度,飞行角度的关键信息,以及燃料和氧气供应他们的眼睛。在五,六家的X模型提出1 214 1946年和1958年之间的航班。
X-1 pilots didn't take to the air for the scenic vistas. Instead, they had their eyes glued to the cockpit instrument panel, which showed key information such as airspeed, altitude, angle of flight, and fuel and oxygen supply. The half-dozen X-1 models made 214 flights between 1946 and 1958.
X-1 and B-50 | 的X 1和B - 50
的X 1和B - 50 X系列飞机简史
从一开始,火箭动力的X飞机通常顺风车搭车进入空气中。在这里,一个地勤人员准备交配的X - 1 - 3其母船,一架B - 50在1951年11月,一个俘虏飞行。 

因为这会变成,这两架飞机被摧毁后,在defueling飞行,按照美国航空航天局和X - 1试验约瑟夫农人严重烧伤,需要住院近1年。 

总共有18个飞行员的各种X - 1的飞机。在X - 1测量近31英尺长,几乎是在11英尺高,并有一个29英尺的翼展。它重量超过6700磅,进行了近那么多重量的燃料。
From the start, rocket-powered X-Planes typically hitched a ride to get into the air. Here, a ground crew prepares to mate the X-1-3 to its mother ship, a B-50, in November 1951 for a captive flight.

As it would turn out, both aircraft were destroyed after the flight during defueling, according to NASA, and X-1 pilot Joseph Cannon was severely burned, requiring a hospital stay of nearly a year.

Altogether, 18 pilots flew the various X-1 planes. The X-1 measured nearly 31 feet long, stood almost 11 feet high, and had a wingspan of 29 feet. It weighed more than 6,700 pounds and carried nearly that much weight in fuel.